|Title / Titel||Encoding and decoding of different types of laughter: A FACS-based study with actors|
|Abstract (PDF, 14 KB)|
|Summary / Zusammenfassung||While both language and phenomenological approaches suggest that different types of laughter exist, until now there is no morphology-based commonly accepted classification of types of laughter. This fact makes the study of the effects of laughter on different psychological and physiological systems (e.g. increase of immune parameters, analgetic effect, mental well-being) very difficult and impairs the accumulation of research findings. According to Darwin (1872) there is only one type of laughter (signalling the emotion of joy). However, others claimed to have identified up to 10 different types. The aim of the present project is a morphologically oriented classification of different laughter. For this purpose, in a preliminary study, a representative list of different types of laughter that can be distinguished in language is being worked out and professional actors will be asked to produce prototypical samples. The videotaped laugh acts are then coded with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman, Friesen & Hager, 2003) in order to identify facial characteristics of the putative laughter categories. Furthermore, two "decoding studies" will be carried out which deal with the recognition of different types of laughter by laypersons and show the relative contribution of facial expression and acoustics to the identification of laughter. At the end of the project, several types of laughter should be distinguished reliably via their facial features or via contextual factors that make laughter appear different.|
|Publications / Publikationen||Drack, P., Huber, T., & Ruch, W. (2009). The apex of happy laughter: A FACS study with actors. In E. Bänninger-Huber & D. Peham (Eds.), Proceedings of the FACS-Workshop 2007. Innsbruck, Austria: Innsbruck University Press, 36-41.
Huber, T. & Ruch, W. (2007.) Laughter as a uniform category? A historic analysis of different types of laughter. 10th Congress of the Swiss Society of Psychology, September 13-14 2007, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
Huber, T., Drack, P., & Ruch, W. (2009). Sulky and angry laughter: The search for distinct facial displays. In E. Bänninger-Huber & D. Peham (Eds.), Proceedings of the FACS-Workshop 2007. Innsbruck, Austria: Innsbruck University Press, 38-44.
Ruch, W. & Ekman, P. (2001). The expressive pattern of laughter. In A.W. Kaszniak (Ed.), Emotion, qualia, and consciousness. Word Scientific Publisher. Tokyo, 426-443.
Ruch, W. (2009). Unresolved issues in research on humour and laughter: The need for FACS-studies. In E. Bänninger-Huber & D. Peham (Eds.), Proceedings of the FACS-Workshop 2007. Innsbruck, Austria: Innsbruck University Press, 42-46.
|Keywords / Suchbegriffe||laughter, facial expression, FACS, actors, classification|
|Project leadership and contacts /
Projektleitung und Kontakte
|Funding source(s) /
|Forschungskredit der Universität Zürich, No project-specific funding
|Duration of Project / Projektdauer||May 2006 to Jul 2010|