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Flückiger

Fakultäten » Philosophische Fakultät » Filmwissenschaft, Seminar für » Prof. Dr. Barbara Flückiger » Flückiger

Current research project

Title / Titel ERC Advanced Grant: FilmColors. Bridging the Gap Between Technology and Aesthetics
PDF Abstract (PDF, 14 KB)
Summary / Zusammenfassung Film is in essence colored light projected onto a screen. Its aesthetics is thus highly determined by the material properties of film and the optical configuration of the cinematic apparatus. To this day, however, there is no systematic study of the relationship between the technology and aesthetics of film colors, despite the fact that, following the digital turn in film production and distribution, the understanding of this relationship is more essential than ever before.

Over 200 film color processes were developed since the invention of film. They are presented on the Timeline of Historical Film Colors http://zauberklang.ch/filmcolors/, which will be an integral part of the project. The groundbreaking nature of this project lies in a truly interdisciplinary research design with a novel methodology to explore the interaction of technological advances and limitations with film color aesthetics, identifying diachronic patterns of stylistic means. To this end it develops a tool through recent advancements in digital humanities for crowd-sourcing of color analyses of large groups of films.

In-depth studies of technical papers and scientific measurements of film colors will investigate the technical and material basis of films’ aesthetic appearance. These insights will be applied to the digitization and restoration of historical films to explore and disseminate the results. While every serious art restoration connects scientific analyses with art-historical and aesthetic investigations, a similar approach is rarely applied to film.

In summary, the present research proposal capitalizes on the principal investigator’s preceding studies to bridge the gap between technology and aesthetics. With the interdisciplinary methods applied, the results will trace previously hidden roots of aesthetic developments of film colors.
Publications / Publikationen

Print Publications

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Torn between Chromophobia and Colour Mania. Developments of Early Technicolor. In: Colour Turn, 1,1, pp. VI-1–VI-36 (= https://open-journals.uni-tuebingen.de/ojs/index.php/tct/article/view/672, retrieved 08/29/2018) (peer-reviewed).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Farbe, Licht, Raum in Blade Runner 2049. In: Zeitschrift für Fantastikforschung (peer-reviewed, in press).

Trumpy, Giorgio; Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Chromatic Callier Effect and its Repercussions on the Digitization of Early Film Colors. In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology (peer-reviewed, in press).

Trumpy, Giorgio; Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Dye Purification. An Image-processing Technique for the Digital Restoration of Chromogenic Film. In: Colour and Visual Computing Symposium (CVCS) 2018, pp. 1–5.

Flueckiger, Barbara; Halter, Gaudenz (2018): Building a Crowd-sourcing Platform for the Analysis of Film Colors. In: The Moving Image, 18.1 (peer-reviewed, in press).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Filmwissenschaft und die Digitalisierung des Filmerbes. In: Montage AV, 18.1 (peer-reviewed, in press).

Flueckiger, Barbara; Op den Kamp, Claudy; Pfluger, David (2018): A Material-Based Approach to the Digitization of Early Film Colors. In: Giovanna Fossati, Victoria Jackson, Bregt Lameris, Elif Rongen, Sarah Street, and Joshua Yumibe (eds.): The Colour Fantastic. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, pp. 237–259 (peer-reviewed).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Filmfarben. In: Hagener, Malte; Pantenburg, Volker (eds.): Handbuch Filmanalyse. Wiesbaden: Springer, 21 pages (peer-reviewed, in press).

Flueckiger, Barbara; Pfluger, David; Trumpy, Giorgio; Croci, Simone; Aydın, Tunç; Smolic, Aljoscha (2018): Film Material-Scanner Interaction, 88 pages. online

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Farben, Texturen, Muster. Oberflächenphänomene des Films. In: Montage AV, 17.2, pp. 202–207 (peer-reviewed).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): A Digital Humanities Approach to Film Colors. In: The Moving Image, 17.2, pp. 72–94 (peer-reviewed).

Lameris, Bregt (2017, co-editor with Joshua Yumibe, Victoria Jackson, Sarah Street, Giovanna Fossati, Elif Ronge): The Colour Fantastic. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press.

Lameris, Bregt (2017): La Ligue du Noir et Blanc. French Debates on Natural Colour Film and Art Cinema 1926-1927. In: Giovanna Fossati, Victoria Jackson, Bregt Lameris, Elif Rongen, Sarah Street, and Joshua Yumibe (eds.): The Colour Fantastic, pp. 219–235, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Lameris, Bregt (2017): The Search for the Lost Colours of Films Albatros. In: FIAF Journal of Film Preservation, 97.10, pp. 11–16 (peer-reviewed).

Lameris, Bregt (2017): Book Review. The Arclight Guidebook to Media History and the Digital Humanities. In: The Moving Image, 17.2, pp. 140–143.

Lameris, Bregt (2017): The Film Museum Practice and Film Historiography. The Case of the Nederlands Filmmuseum (1946-2000). Amsterdam University Press (monograph, 270 pages) .

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Color and Subjectivity in Film. In: Maike Sarah Reinerth, Jan-Noël Thon (Hg.): Subjectivity across Media. Interdisciplinary and Transmedial Perspectives. New York: Routledge, pp. 145–161 (peer-reviewed).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Die verlorenen Farben des frühen Films. In: Filmbulletin, 3/2015, pp. 6–13.

Online Publications

Flückiger, Barbara (2018): Open Access: Digital-Humanities-Tools für die Filmforschung. | Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft. In: Open Media Studies Blog der Zeitschrift für Medienwissenschaft. (= https://www.zfmedienwissenschaft.de/online/open-media-studies-blog/open-access-digital-humanities-tools-f%C3%BCr-die-filmforschung, retrieved 10/30/2018).

Stutz, Olivia Kristina (2017): Lights On! Illuminating Color Notes from a Dark Nitrate Room in the Netherlands. In: FilmColors – An Interdisciplinary Approach. (= https://filmcolors.org/2017/10/02/eye/, retrieved 10/30/2018).

Conference Papers and Presentations

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Documentation, Analysis and Restoration of Historical Film Colors. Library of Congress, National Audio-Visual Conservation Center, Culpeper VA, USA.

Lameris, Bregt (2018): Advanced Methods for the Analysis of Film Color Aesthetics. NECS Open Access Workshop, Institute for Sound and Vision in Hilversum.

Lameris, Bregt (2018): Teaching the Materiality of Film. NECS Media Tactics and Engagement. University of Amsterdam, Utrecht University, Free University (Amsterdam).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Shattered Provenance in the Digitization of Early Film. DOMITOR Conference, Rochester NY, USA.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Documentation and Analysis of Historical Film Colors. DOMITOR Graduate School, Rochester NY, USA (invited paper).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Figur / Grund. Fläche und Raum im Farbfilm. International Conference Affinitäten / Affinities, University of Zurich.

Trumpy, Giorgio; Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): A Multispectral Approach to Film Scanning and Reconstruction of Dye Fading. International ARRI Workshop, Munich.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Computer-based Approaches for the Analysis of Film Style, Brandenburgisches Zentrum für Medienwissenschaften, Potsdam (invited paper).

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Film Colors. An Interdisciplinary Approach, Conference Tecnologia e cultura visuale tra cinema e media. Technology and Visual Culture between Cinema and Media, University of Florence (invited paper).

Lameris, Bregt (2018): Color and Affect. Technology and Aesthetics of Affective Colors in Film. University of Zurich.

Lameris, Bregt (2018): Psychedelic Film in the 1960s. Coloured Light Projections. Colour in Context Symposium, University of Bristol.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): FilmColors – Bridging the Gap Between Technology and Aesthetics. The Third International Conference, Colour in Film, London.

Stutz, Olivia (2018); The Transparency of Early Film Colors. Techniques, Aesthetics, Materials. The Third International Conference, Colour in Film, London.

Kost, Joëlle (2018): Challenging the Film Stock? Diffusion and Visual Complexity in Colour Film. The Third International Conference, Colour in Film, London.

Beutler, Michelle (2018): Staging in Color. A Comparative Analysis of Technicolor and Agfacolor. The Third International Conference, Colour in Film, London.

Stutz, Olivia (2018): Color, Desire and the Material(-ity) of Female Identity. The Technology and Aesthetics of

Early Color Film Processes in Relation to the White Power of the Apparatus in Fashion Newsreels of the 1920s. XXV International Film Studies Conference, Gorizia, Italy.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018); Analysis and Visualization of Color in Film. Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Frankfurt am Main.

Lameris, Bregt (2018): Analysis and Visualisation of Color in Cinema. The Case of Disgust in Film. Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Frankfurt am Main.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Analysis in ERC Advanced Grant FilmColors. Workshop James E. Cutting, Cornell University: Computer Assisted Methods of Film Analysis, Zürich

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Film-Material-Scanner-Interaktion. Jahrestagung der AG Restaurierung des Deutschen Kinemathekenverbunds, Berlin.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Image Feature Extraction with an Emphasis on Color. The Sensory Moving Image Archive Workshop, EYE Filmmuseum, Amsterdam.

Halter, Gaudenz (2018): VIAN. Visual Annotation and Analysis of Films. The Sensory Moving Image Archive Workshop, EYE Filmmuseum, Amsterdam.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018): Annotation and Visualization for the Analysis of Film Colors. Workshop Research Video, University of Art and Design, Zurich

Halter, Gaudenz (2018): Workshop Research Video, University of Art and Design, Zurich

Flueckiger, Barbara (2018):: Technology, Analysis and Restoration of Film Colors. 40. Technikgeschichtlichen Tagung 2017, Farben der Technik - Technik der Farben.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2017): Restoring Early Film Colors. Collegium of the Giornate del Cinema Muto, Pordenone, Italy.

Trumpy, Giorgio; Gschwind, Rudolf (2017): Conflicting Colors. Film Scanning versus Film Projection· 25th Color and Imaging Conference (Lillehammer (N), Sept. 2017) · Society for Imaging Science and Technology · 2017

Gschwind, Rudolf; Zbinden, Erwin; Trumpy, Giorgio, Delaney, K. (2017): Color Negatives at the Demise of Silver Halides · ICOM-CC - 18th Triennial Conference (Copenhagen (DK), Sept. 2017) · International Council of Museums.

Lameris, Bregt (2017): Nerven in Farbe. Technologie, Restaurierung, Ästhetik. Wissenskaleidoskop Nerven, Humboldt University, Berlin.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2017): Farben der Technik - Technik der Farben in Schlatt: Technology, Analysis and Restoration of Film Colors, 40. Technikgeschichtliche Tagung 2017. (invited paper)

Flueckiger, Barbara; Evirgen, Noyan; Paredes, Enrique G.; Ballester-Ripoll, Rafael; Pajarola, Renato (2017): Deep Learning Tools for Foreground-Aware Analysis of Film Colors, Computer Vision in Digital Humanities, Digital Humanities Conference in Montreal.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2017): Measuring Aesthetics. Computer-assisted Color Analyses of Films, NECS Conference Sensibility and the Senses. Media, Bodies, Practices in Paris.

Lameris, Bregt (2017): The Senses of Film History. The Materiality of Filmcolors in the Age of Digital Reproduction, NECS Conference Sensibility and the Senses. Media, Bodies, Practices in Paris.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2017): Film Colors, Textures, Lights. How Color Appearance Corresponds to Characters’ Inner States, SCSMI Conference Helsinki.

Lameris, Bregt (2017): Colorful Depictions of Disgust in Cinematic Representations, SCSMI Conference Helsinki.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2017): Using Video Annotation for Film Color Analyses, CLARIAH Annotation Symposium, Amsterdam.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2017): Investigating and Documenting Film Colors, Udine International Film Studies Conference A History of Cinema Without Names in Gorizia, Italy.

Lameris, Bregt (2017): : Affective History, Digitisation and the Case of Color in Film, Udine International Film Studies Conference A History of Cinema Without Names in Gorizia, Italy

Trumpy, Giorgio (2017): Spectral Analysis of Historical Film Images, Second International Conference Colour in Film in London.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2017): Restoring Historical Film Colors. Presentation and screening at the Second International Conference Colour in Film in London.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Panel at the Conference Zugang gestalten! In Berlin: Zwischen Essigsyndrom und digitalem Nirwana – Filmerbe heute, mit Dr. Michael Hollmann, Präsident des Bundesarchivs; Dr. Dorcas Müller, Leiterin des Labors für antiquierte Videosysteme des ZKM.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Filmfarben – ein interdisziplärer Ansatz, International Conference Color in Mind, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Panel at the conference Vergangenheit braucht Zukunft! Strategien für einen nachhaltigen Umgang mit dem audiovisuellen Kulturerbe Deutschlands des Deutschen Kulturrats in Berlin: State of the Art des Aufbewahrens. Strategien und Technologien.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Agfacolor Restorations: Immensee (1943) and Opfergang (1944), with Anke Wilkening, Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Foundation, and Matteo Lepore, ARRI Media AG. Presentation at the Reel Thing Conference in Bologna.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Keynote A Digital Humanities Approach to Film Colors, Summer School Datafied Media History, University of Utrecht, Netherlands.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Masterclass Theory and Application of Digital Humanities Tools for Media Studies, Summer School Datafied Media History, University of Utrecht, Niederlande.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Digital Agfacolor restoration of Veit Harlan’s Immensee and Opfergang (1942-1944), with Anke Wilkening, Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Foundation, and Thilo Gottschling, ARRI Media AG, International ARRI Archive Workshop 2016, Munich.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Wie die Digitalisierung die Wahrnehmung von historischen Filmen verändert, Conference AV Medien im Archiv: Komplexe Quellen, aufwendige Erschliessung, vielfältige Vermittlung in Zürich:

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Keynote Bridging the Gap between Analogue Film History and Digital Technology, First International Conference Colour in Film in London.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): Film Color Restoration Case Studies, presentation and screening at the First International Conference Colour in Film in London.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2016): FilmColors. An Interdisciplinary Approach, Department of Psychological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2015): Verschwindet unserer Filmgeschichte? „Filmerbe in Gefahr“ Die Rettung des Filmerbes und die Fachwissenschaften in Frankfurt am Main.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2015): A Digital Humanities Approach to Film Colors, Conference Moving Image Analytics: Research Infrastructure for Film Heritage in Stockholm.

Flueckiger, Barbara (2015): Films Were Always Colored (in collaboration with Prof. Dr. Ulrich Ruedel, HTW Berlin), Collegium der Giornate del Cinema Muto, Pordenone.

Completed Restoration Case Studies

Münchhausen (GER 1943, Josef von Báky) is one of the most important films in the then newly invented Agfacolor process, produced in the Third Reich to showcase the superiority of German technology in the framework of highly entertaining film classic.

For this restoration, supervised by Anke Wilkening for the Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau Foundation and executed by ARRI Media in Munich, the PI executed an overall analysis consisting of the documentation of several original Agfacolor prints, surviving black-and-white separation masters and camera negatives to devise the very complex overall workflow for the reconstruction of the heavily faded colors and to establish the color scheme for the color grading, while research scientist Dr. Giorgio Trumpy executed colorimetric measurements and material analyses. The newly restored version premieres at the International Munich Film Festival in June 2017 to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the German production company UFA.

Mother Nature Father Time (USA 1965) is a Scopitone Technicolor dye transfer print provided by the Lichtspiel Kinemathek in Berne. The research team executed the full workflow with their newly installed film scanner, software and hardware.

Web of Love (USA 1966) is a Scopitone Technicolor dye transfer print provided by the Lichtspiel Kinemathek in Berne. The research team also executed the full workflow with their newly installed film scanner, software and hardware.

Trouville, la reine des plages (FRA 1923) is a very rare stencil colored Pathé Baby 9.5 mm film provided by the Lichtspiel Kinemathek in Berne. The research team also executed the full digitization and restoration workflow with their newly installed film scanner, software and hardware.

Thüringen, das grüne Herz Deutschlands (GER 1940), early Agfacolor Kulturfilm, from the Collection of Deutsches Filminstititut DIF Frankfurt am Main (scientific analysis and color consulting), executed by Haghefilm Digitaal, Amsterdam under the supervision of Anke Mebold.

Frühling in den Vogesen (GER 1942), early Agfacolor Kulturfilm, from the Collection of Deutsches Filminstititut DIF Frankfurt am Main (scientific analysis and color consulting), executed by Haghefilm Digitaal, Amsterdam under the supervision of Anke Mebold.

Märkische Fahrt (GER 1942, Kurt Rupli) early Agfacolor Kulturfilm, from the Collection of Filminstititut DIF Frankfurt am Main (scientific analysis and color consulting), executed by Haghefilm Digitaal, Amsterdam under the supervision of Anke Mebold.

Maibowle (GDR 1959, Günter Reisch), Agfacolor Safety Print, Filmmuseum Potsdam

Unfallschutz-Zeichentrickfilm] (ČSSR ), Orwocolor Reversal Print, Filmmuseum Potsdam

[Berlin Nikolaiviertel] (GDR 1986), Orwochrom UT15 Reversal Print, Filmmuseum Potsdam

Maschinisten der Kohleveredelung (GDR 1988, Horst Klein), Orwochrom Reversal Print, Filmmuseum Potsdam

[Neue Turmspitze auf Oberkirche Cottbus] (GDR 1988), Orwochrom UK3 Reversal Print, Filmmuseum Potsdam

[Pfingsten 1981] (GDR 1981), Orwochrom UT15 and UK 17 Reversal Print, Filmmuseum Potsdam

Restoration Case Studies in Progress

Schweizer Bilderbogen (FRA 1912–1914) stencil colored nitrate film from the collection of the Deutsche Kinemathek in Berlin

Lea aus dem Süden (GDR 1963, Gottfried Kolditz) Agfacolor film from the holdings of the Bundesarchiv Filmarchiv in Berlin, copyrights DEFA foundation Berlin.

[Tänze] (1920s) tinted and toned nitrate compilation film, from the Collection of Deutsches Filminstititut DIF Frankfurt am Main.

Cajus Julius / Cajus Julius Caesar (ITA 1914, Enrico Guazzoni) tinted and toned nitrate film from the holdings of the Norwegian Film Institute.

[Jakt i Afrika] (FRA 1910) Pathéchrome nitrate film from the holdings of the National Library of Norway.

Marcantonio e Cleopatra (ITA 1913, Enrico Guazzoni) tinted nitrate film from the holdings of the National Library of Norway.

Vingarna (SWE 1916, Mauritz Stiller) tinted and toned nitrate film from the holdings of the National Library of Norway.

[Grimstad gartneris rabarbravin] (NOR 1935) toned film from the holdings of the National Library of Norway.

[Kestrel og ugler] (no year) tinted and toned nitrate film from the holdings of the National Library of Norway.

[Pathé forvandlingsakt] (FRA 1905-1909) Pathéchrome film from the holdings of the National Library of Norway.

Un délire hallucinatoire - psychose systématique chronique (FRA 1961, Éric Duvivier; Albert Luzuy). Kodachrome A & Ektachrome. In collaboration with Université de Strasbourg. From the holdings of Image'Est.

Phobie d'impulsion (FRA 1967, Éric Duvivier; Albert Luzuy). Kodachrome II. In collaboration with Université de Strasbourg. From the holdings of Image'Est.

Hallucinations: Images du monde visionnaire (FRA 1963, Éric Duvivier; Henri Michaux). Kodachrome II. In collaboration with Université de Strasbourg. From the holdings of Image'Est.

Keywords / Suchbegriffe Film, Aesthetics, Technology, Color, Restoration, Analysis, Digitization
Project leadership and contacts /
Projektleitung und Kontakte
Prof. Dr. Barbara Flückiger (Project Leader) baflueckiger@gmail.com
Dr. Bregt Lameris bregtje.lameris@uzh.ch
Dr. Giorgio Trumpy giorgio.trumpy@fiwi.uzh.ch
Martin Weiss martin.weiss2@uzh.ch
MA Michelle Beutler michelle.beutler@uzh.ch
MA Olivia Stutz oliviakristina.stutz@uzh.ch
MA Joëlle Kost joelle.kost@uzh.ch
Dr. Evelyn Echle evelyn.echle@uzh.ch
BSc Gaudenz Halter gaudenz.halter@live.com
Dr. David Pfluger david.pfluger@saeure.ch
Other links to external web pages Timeline of Historical Film Colors: http://zauberklang.ch/filmcolors/
News and updates: http://filmcolors.org/
ERC Advanced Grants http://erc.europa.eu/advanced-grants
Funding source(s) /
Unterstützt durch
EU
Advanced Grant of the European Research Council
Duration of Project / Projektdauer Sep 2015 to Aug 2020