Proyer Ruch

Fakultäten » Philosophische Fakultät » Psychologisches Institut » Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Diagnostik » Prof. Dr. Willibald Ruch » Proyer Ruch

Completed research project

Title / Titel Reactions towards the laughter by others: On gelotophobes, gelotophiles, and katagelasticists
PDF Abstract (PDF, 14 KB)
Summary / Zusammenfassung This project evolved out of a larger project that was specially focused on the research on the fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia). This project is aimed at the exploration of different reactions towards the laughter of others. On the one hand there are people who enjoy being laughed at (i.e., gelotophiles) and on the other hand, there are people who enjoy laughing at others. In a first step, we created a reliable and valid instrument for the subjective assessment of gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism (the PhoPhiKat-45; see Ruch & Proyer, in press). In a next step, we are interested in examining whether gelotophobes, gelotophiles, and katagelasticists differ with regard to specific characteristics (e.g., humor, personality) or abilities (e.g., intelligence). In a third step, we are interested in cross-cultural research. Currently, the PhoPhiKat-45 is translated to Chinese and Romanian. Data will be collected in China, Hong Kong, Romania, Russia, and Taiwan. Data from these studies will be compared with the data collected so far in Switzerland.
Publications / Publikationen Chen, H. C.,Chan, Y. C., Ruch, W., & Proyer, R. T. (2013). Being laughed at and laughing at others in Taiwan and Switzerland: A cross-cultural perspective. In J. R. M. Davis, & J. V. Chey (Eds.), Modern and contemporary approaches to humour in China (Vol 2. of Humour in Chinese life and letters, pp. 215-229). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Proyer, R. T., Estoppey, S., & Ruch, W. (2012). An initial study on how families deal with ridicule and being laughed at: Parenting styles and parent-child-relations with respect to gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. Journal of Adult Development, 19, 228-237. doi:10.1007/s10804-012-9150-6

Proyer, R. T., Hempelmann, C. F., & Ruch, W. (2009). Were they really laughed at? That much? Gelotophobes and their history of perceived derisibility. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 22(1-2), 213-231. doi:10.1515/HUMR.2009.010

Proyer, R. T., & Neukom, M. (2013). Ridicule and being laughed at in the family: Gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism in young children and their parents. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 1191-1195. doi:10.1080/00207594.2013.775448

Proyer, R. T., Neukom, M., Platt, T., & Ruch, W. (2012). Assessing gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism in children: An initial study on how six to nine-year-olds deal with laughter and ridicule and how this relates to bullying and victimization. Child Indicators Research, 5, 297-316. doi:10.1007/s12187-011-9127-1

Proyer, R. T., Platt, T., & Ruch, W. (2010). Self-conscious emotions and ridicule: Shameful gelotophobes and guilt free katagelasticists. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 54-58. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.007

Proyer, R. T., & Ruch, W. (2010). Dispositions towards ridicule and being laughed at: Current research on gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism (Editorial). Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52, 49-59.

Proyer, R. T., & Ruch. W. (2010). Enjoying and fearing laughter: Personality characteristics of gelotophobes, gelotophiles, and katagelasticists. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52, 148-160.

Proyer, R. T., Wellenzohn, S., & Ruch, W. (2014). Character and dealing with laughter: The relation of self- and peer-reported strengths of character with gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 148, 113-132. doi:10.1080/00223980.2012.752336

Ruch, W., Beermann, U., & Proyer, R. T. (2009). Investigating the humor of gelotophobes: Does feeling ridiculous equal being humorless? Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 22(1-2), 111-143. doi:10.1515/HUMR.2009.006

Ruch, W., Harzer, C., & Proyer, R. T. (2013). Beyond being timid, witty, and cynical: Big Five personality characteristics of gelotophobes, gelotophiles, and katagelasticists. The Israeli Journal of Humor Research: An International Journal, 2, 2-20.

Ruch, W., & Proyer, R. T. (2009). Extending the study of gelotophobia: On gelotophiles and katagelasticists. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 22(1-2), 183-212. doi: 10.1515/HUMR.2009.00

Samson, A. C., Huber, O., & Ruch, W. (2011). Teasing, ridiculing and the relation to the fear of being laughed at in individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 475-483. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1071-2

Keywords / Suchbegriffe laughing at, mock, ridicule, bullying, phobia
Project leadership and contacts /
Projektleitung und Kontakte
Dr. René Proyer (Project Leader)
Prof. Dr. Willibald Ruch (Project Leader)
Other links to external web pages (self-assessment in English) (Fragebogen online in deutscher Sprache)
Funding source(s) /
Unterstützt durch
In collaboration with /
In Zusammenarbeit mit
Yu-Chen Chan supervised by Prof. Hsueh-Chih Chen at the National Taiwan Normal University

Prof. Chao-chih Liao at the National Taiwan Normal University
Yu Feng supervised by Prof. Guo Yongyu at the Huazhong Normal University (China) China
Dr. Otilia Mitrache at the University Babes-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Lic.phil. Andrea Samson, University of Fribourg
Duration of Project / Projektdauer Jan 2008 to Dec 2010